Ashika Patel Balani has never considered herself a tiger mom—but lately she has been sharpening her claws.

The Redwood, Calif., mother just signed up her 4-year-old daughter for several hours of online classes in subjects like writing, reading, math, space science and animals. She says the virtual learning site, called Outschool, provides the live teacher-child interaction that her daughter’s preschool has lacked since it went online last month. It also allows Ms. Patel Balani, who is in product marketing for Facebook, to…

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