Boeing Co. Chief Executive David Calhoun’s prediction of a major U.S. airline’s demise has prompted complaints from some of the plane maker’s biggest customers as they grapple with fallout from the coronavirus pandemic, people familiar with the matter said.

American Airlines Group Inc. CEO Doug Parker called the Boeing chief this week to express surprise and disappointment after Mr. Calhoun told a television interviewer that a major U.S. airline would most likely go out of business by this fall, one of these people said.

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