NEW DELHI—Uber Technologies Inc. is in talks to sell its food-delivery business in India to a local rival, according to people familiar with the matter, a potential boost for the American company as Chief Executive Dara Khosrowshahi seeks a path to profitability.

A deal, which could be announced as early as this week, would see the San Francisco-based company unload the costly Indian operations of its global food delivery arm, Uber Eats, to competitor Zomato Media Pvt. Ltd., the people said.

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