WASHINGTON—Congress has thrown nearly $3 trillion at stemming the economic damage caused by the coronavirus pandemic. Now, Washington wants to make sure it knows where it is going.

The flood of federal relief funds has created an outsize opportunity for fraud and misuse, pushing congressional leaders to fill top positions created to monitor the money. With a fifth aid package in the works, lawmakers, inspectors general and prosecutors are ramping up their scrutiny of money disbursed from the four bills already signed into…

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