WASHINGTON—The impeachment trial of President Trump on charges of abuse of power and obstruction of Congress will begin in the U.S. Senate on Thursday with a ceremonial reading of the House-passed articles and a solemn swearing-in of all 100 senators, who will pledge to do “impartial justice.”

The moment will mark the official start of the trial—only the third such proceeding against a U.S. president in history. At least two-thirds of the senators would have to vote to convict Mr. Trump to remove him from office. Mr. Trump…

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