Renault SA swung to a 2019 net loss—its first in a decade—and slashed its dividend, as the French auto giant absorbed sharply lower income from alliance partner Nissan Motor Co. and struggled with falling sales in China.

The results cap a tumultuous year for the car maker. It spent much of 2019 embroiled in conflict with its partner Nissan, after the late-2018 arrest in Japan of Carlos Ghosn. Mr. Ghosn forged the partnership between the two auto makers and led it for years. Renault also spent weeks discussing a possible tie-up…

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