Major U.S. manufacturers said some closed plants may never reopen and new product introductions could be delayed, after the coronavirus pandemic slashed demand for everything from motorcycles to industrial paint.

Caterpillar Inc. said Tuesday that its first-quarter revenue fell by a fifth, and Harley-Davidson Inc. said retail sales of its motorcycles slumped around the world during the quarter. 3M Co. said it would furlough workers and idle some factory lines apart from its booming N95 mask business, a sign of the broad economic…

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