TOKYO—Prime Minister Shinzo Abe plans to expand a state of emergency to the whole country, his economy minister said Thursday, after the death toll from the new coronavirus rose at a faster pace.

Mr. Abe declared a state of emergency in the Tokyo region and two other urban areas on April 7. Under Japanese law, the state of emergency doesn’t force any businesses to close, but many have done so voluntarily, and major companies have instituted work-from-home policies.

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