J.C. Penney Co. dressed middle-class American families for more than a century, but its failure to evolve as shopping habits changed in the past decade set the retailer on a long march toward bankruptcy.

On Friday, Penney filed for chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, becoming the latest in a parade of retailers to seek a court restructuring during the coronavirus pandemic. Neiman Marcus Group Inc., J.Crew Group Inc. and Stage Stores Inc. have all filed for bankruptcy this month.

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