WASHINGTON—Outmaneuvered in an Oval Office discussion with other advisers, Peter Navarro trash-talked his opponents: “Globalists!”

An advocate for a hard-line approach to China, Mr. Navarro was mounting a final stand against a trade deal with Beijing during a crucial meeting of President Trump’s advisers this month. Mr. Trump has often sided with the protectionist Mr. Navarro against advisers who advocate a more calibrated approach. This time, Mr. Trump waved him off, according to a witness, and agreed to a limited trade deal…

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