International Business Machines Corp.’s earnings declined in the second quarter against the backdrop of a pandemic that has roiled many of its corporate customers.

Armonk, N.Y.-based IBM had been searching for growth under new Chief Executive Arvind Krishna after several years of mostly declining revenue under his predecessor, Ginni Rometty. Cloud computing and artificial intelligence have become focal points in recent years for the 109-year-old company, which became a corporate mainstay with its mainframe computers and information-technology…

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