WASHINGTON—The Senate passed a resolution blocking President Trump from using military force against Iran without congressional authorization, in the latest bipartisan effort on Capitol Hill to rein in presidential war-making powers.

The resolution passed the GOP-controlled Senate, 55 to 45—with eight Republicans joining the Democrats—despite opposition from Mr. Trump and Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell. The Democratic-controlled House has indicated it will take up the resolution, which doesn’t prevent the U.S. from…

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