LONDON—Europeans became much gloomier about their economic prospects in early March as governments across the continent announced increasingly stringent restrictions on movement and social interaction, suffering the largest loss of confidence in a single month on record.

The European Commission—the European Union’s executive arm—said Monday its measure of consumer sentiment in the 19-country eurozone slumped to minus 11.6 from minus 6.6 in February, the largest one-month fall since the series began in 1985.

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