WASHINGTON—The Justice Department on Wednesday charged a Defense Department linguist with sharing classified information with an individual connected to the Hezbollah terrorist group, including the real names of individuals who were spying for the U.S.

In what would be a major security breach, officials said the linguist, Mariam Taha Thompson, 61, who works under contract for the Defense Department, transmitted the highly classified data while serving at a Special Operations Task Force site in Erbil, Iraq.

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