WASHINGTON—The coronavirus pandemic has complicated President Trump’s plan to attract more black voters, as the virus is hitting minority communities disproportionately hard, while draining years of economic gains and forcing political campaigns online.

The president’s re-election message to black voters had relied heavily on a low unemployment rate and campaign outreach, including plans for neighborhood storefront offices. Now with the nation under lockdown to contain the spread of the virus, Mr. Trump’s campaign is reaching…

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