HONG KONG—Chinese leader Xi Jinping is racing to revive a battered economy as he tries to project a united Communist Party and quash dissent against his authority.

An annual legislative conclave will bring thousands of lawmakers and political advisers to Beijing this week, after a 2½-month delay, and give Mr. Xi an opportunity to lay out his economic goals and pivot back to sidelined priorities through the staging of China’s first major political assembly since the pandemic started.

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