BEIJING—China reported a robust rebound in the second quarter of the year, avoiding a recession and putting the world’s second-largest economy back on a growth trajectory even as other countries struggle with the impact of the coronavirus pandemic.

The question now is whether China has seen the best of the recovery, as Beijing faces a daunting set of challenges through the end of the year: A coronavirus resurgence in the U.S. that could slow the global economy, rising tensions with Washington and widespread flooding and diminished…

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