SHANGHAI—Chinese economic growth slowed to 6.1% last year, according to figures released Friday, as sagging trade and business confidence pulled the closely watched reading to its lowest level in nearly three decades.

The slowdown, which has become more severe since the economy peaked in 2011 following years of double-digit growth, rippled through many sectors of the Chinese economy last year and was made worse by the Trump administration’s trade pressure and tariffs.

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