PARIS—Carlos Ghosn, the former chief of Nissan Motor Co. and Renault SA, has fled Japan, where he is facing trial for alleged financial wrongdoing, and arrived Monday in Lebanon, according to people familiar with the matter.

While Mr. Ghosn had been released from Japanese jail, and was permitted to leave a house in Tokyo designated as his residence, he was required to stay in Japan pending his trial. It couldn’t immediately be learned how Mr. Ghosn evaded Japanese authorities.

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