As Amazon.com Inc. began a search for a second headquarters in 2017, and billions in economic incentives that would go with it, Chief Executive Jeff Bezos and senior executives set another goal: to secure an additional $1 billion for other real-estate projects.

The target was created by Mr. Bezos and his top lieutenants, called the S-Team, which sets high-priority goals every year for various groups in the company. The unusually large goal was due to high capital investment costs that year, said one of the people.

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