AL-HOL, Syria—The crack of a gunshot scattered a group of women throwing stones at a surveillance camera watching over the camp where they have been held with their children since the fall of Islamic State’s would-be caliphate.

As the internment of these non-Syrian adherents of the terror group drags on, desperation is swelling in the al-Hol camp, raising tensions between them and those left to guard this bleak assemblage of sagging tents surrounded by a chain-link fence.

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