When Virginia Jacko began losing her eyesight in her 40s, she left her job as a senior financial executive at a university and enrolled in a vocational-rehabilitation program. Using new technology, she was soon able to use a spreadsheet, read a financial statement and even pick out matching clothes.

Fifteen years later, she is chief executive of the Miami Lighthouse for the Blind, which runs the program. Ms. Jacko’s experience shows how advances in technology and health care, as well as changes in the labor market, have created…

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